What is ASTM?
Founded in 1898, ASTM International is a not-for-profit organization that provides a global forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems, and services. Over 30,000 individuals from 100 nations are the members of ASTM International, who are producers, users, consumers, and representatives of government and academia. In over 130 varied industry areas, ASTM standards serve as the basis for manufacturing, procurement, and regulatory activities. Formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM International provides standards that are accepted and used in research and development, product testing, quality systems, and commercial transactions around the globe.
TCA: TILE COUNCIL OF AMERICA INC
TCA was established in 1945 with the sole purpose of expanding the ceramic tile market in the United States. TCA's research laboratory has developed and patented many innovative installation materials which have improved ceramic tile installation. The TCA tests tile, setting material and methods for any client and can test most ISO and ASTM methods. It also conducts the Robinson Floor test. Evaluations of Coefficient of Friction (COF) are available for product investigations. The TCA has a German Ramp tester, the only known device of its kind in the nation.
WHAT IS WATER ABSORPTION?
The 'water absorption' is the quantity of water which a tile can absorb under particular conditions. Porcelain stoneware tiles have the lowest water absorption of any type of ceramic tile. This characteristic, therefore, provides an immediate indication of the structure of the material. Some characteristic which depend on the porosity of the material are the following: abrasion resistance, which increase as water absorption decreases; frost and chemical resistance.
WHAT IS FLEXURAL RESISTANCE?
The flexural resistance is a parameter characteristic of the material and corresponds to the maximum stress per unit area that a specimen can withstand without breaking when it is subjected to an increasing load. The flexural resistance is the characteristic to which reference is most generally made in regard to the quality control of ceramic tile.
WHAT IS ABRASIVE HARDNESS?
The abrasive hardness is the resistance of the surface itself to wear caused by the movement of bodies, surfaces or materials in contact with the tile. Among these actions even cleaning and maintenance of the tile surface could be sources of abrasion due to the movement of bodies on the tile surface. Abrasive hardness is one of the most important characteristic considering the durability of the tile.
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